This document is about: QUANTUM 2



The process of creating an entity or component instance from a Component Prototype or Entity Prototype is called Materialization .

The materialization of scene prototypes baked into the map asset follow the same rules and execution flow as the materialization of code created instances using the Frame.Create API.

Prototype vs Instance

The component instances and entity instances are part of the game state; in other words they can be manipulated at runtime. Components declared in the DSL are used to generate their corresponding Component Prototypes. The code generated prototypes follow the naming convention MyComponent_Prototype.

Component Prototypes and Entity Prototypes are both assets; this means they are not part of the game state, immutable at runtime and have to be identical for all clients at all time. Each Component Prototype has a ComponentPrototypeRef which can be used to find it the corresponding asset using the Frame.FindPrototype<MyComponentName_Prototype>(MyComponentPrototypeRef).

Component Prototypes

It is possible to extend a Component Prototype to include data which may not be directly used in materialization. This allows, for example, to have shared data between instances of a particular component or exclude read-only data from the frame to keep the game state slim.

Code generated Component Prototypes are partial classes which can be easily extended:

  1. Create a C# file called MyComponentName_Prototype.cs;
  2. Place the body of the script into the Quantum.Prototypes namespace;
  3. ( Optional ) Add using Quantum.Inspector; to have access to the inspector attributes presented in the Attributes section of the Manual \ ECS page.

It is then possible to add extra data to the Component Prototype asset and implement the partial MaterializeUser() method to add custom materialization logic.


The following example presents the materialization of the Vehicle component as found in the Arcade Racing Template.

The Vehicle component holds mainly dynamic values computed at runtime. Since these cannot be initialized, the component definition in the DSL uses the ExcludeFromPrototype attribute on those parameters to exclude them from the Vehicle_Prototype asset designers can manipulate in the Unity editor. The Nitro parameter is only part that can be edited to allow designers to decide with how much nitro a specific Vehicle is initialized.


component Vehicle 
    ComponentPrototypeRef Prototype;

    Byte Flags;
    FP Speed;
    FP ForwardSpeed;
    FPVector3 EngineForce;
    FP WheelTraction;

    FPVector3 AvgNormal;

    array<Wheel>[4] Wheels;

    FP Nitro;

The Vehicle_Prototype asset is extended to provide designers with customizable read-only parameters. The Vehicle_Prototype asset can thus hold shared values for all instances of a specific vehicle entity prototype "type". The Prototype parameter in the Vehicle component is of type ComponentPrototypeRef which is the component specific equivalent to AssetRef. To populate it, the partial MaterializeUser() method is used to assign the reference of the Vehicle_Prototype.


using Photon.Deterministic;
using Quantum.Inspector;
using System;

namespace Quantum.Prototypes
public unsafe partial class Vehicle_Prototype

    public FP EngineForwardForce = 130;
    public FP EngineBackwardForce = 120;
    public FPVector3 EngineForcePosition;
    public FP ApproximateMaxSpeed = 20;

    [Header("Hand Brake")]
    public FP HandBrakeStrength = 10;
    public FP HandBrakeTractionMultiplier = 1;

    public FP AirResistance = FP._0_02;
    public FP RollingResistance = FP._0_10 * 6;
    public FP DownForceFactor = 0;
    public FP TractionGripMultiplier = 10;
    public FP AirTractionDecreaseSpeed = FP._0_50;

    public AxleSetup FrontAxle = new AxleSetup();
    public AxleSetup RearAxle = new AxleSetup();

    public FP MaxNitro = 100;
    public FP NitroForceMultiplier = 2;

    partial void MaterializeUser(Frame frame, ref Vehicle result, in PrototypeMaterializationContext context)
        result.Prototype = context.ComponentPrototypeRef;
    public class AxleSetup
        public FPVector3 PositionOffset;
        public FP Width = 1;
        public FP SpringForce = 120;
        public FP DampingForce = 175;
        public FP SuspensionLength = FP._0_10 * 6;
        public FP SuspensionOffset = -FP._0_25;

The parameters in the Vehicle_Prototype hold values necessary to compute the dynamic values found in the component instance which impact the behaviour of the entity to which the Vehicle component is attached. For example, when a player picks up additional Nitro, the value held in the Vehicle component is clamped to the MaxNitro value found in the Vehicle_Prototype. This enforces the limits under penality of desynchronization and keeps the game state slim.


namespace Quantum
    public unsafe partial struct Vehicle
        public void AddNitro(Frame frame, EntityRef entity, FP amount)
            var prototype = frame.FindPrototype<Vehicle_Prototype>(Prototype);
            Nitro = FPMath.Clamp(Nitro + amount, 0, prototype.MaxNitro);

Materialization Order

Every Entity Prototype, including the scene prototypes, the materialization executes the following steps in order:

  1. An empty entity is created.
  2. For each Component Prototype contained in the Entity Prototype:
    1. the component instance is created on the stack;
    2. the Component Prototype is materialized into the component instance;
    3. ( Optional ) MaterializeUser() is called; and,
    4. the component is added to the entity which triggers the ISignalOnComponentAdded<MyComponent> signal.
  3. ISignalOnEntityPrototypeMaterialized is invoked for each materialized entity.
    • Load Map / Scene: the signal is invoked for all entity & Entity Prototype pair after all scene prototypes have been materialized.
    • Created with Frame.Create(): the signal is invoked immediately after the prototype has been materialized.

The Component Prototype materialization step materializes default components in a predetermined order.



Once all default components have been materialized, the user defined components are materialized in alphabetically order.


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